Visible Video Data Hiding Techniques Based on Visual Effects Utilizing Barcodes
Tetsuya Kojima, Kento Akimoto,
Data hiding techniques are usually applied into digital watermarking or digital fingerprinting, which is used to protect intellectual property rights or to avoid illegal copies of the original works. It is pointed out that data hiding can be utilized as a communication medium. It is required that the difference between the cover objects and the stego objects are quite small in order that the difference cannot be recognized by human sensory systems. On the other hand, the authors have proposed a hearable data hiding technique for audio signals that can carry secret message and can be naturally recognized as a musical piece by human ears. In this study, we extend the idea of the hearable data hiding into video signals by utilizing the visual effects. As visual effects, we employ fade-in and fade-out effects which can be used as a kind of visual rendering for scene transitions. In the proposed schemes, secret messages are generated as one-dimensional barcodes which are used for fade-in or fade-out effects. The present paper shows that the proposed schemes have the high accuracy in extracting the embedded messages even from the video signals captured by smartphones. It is also shown that the video signals conveying the embedded messages can be naturally recognized by human visual systems through subjective evaluation experiments.